For example, an analysis of NHANES III (1988-1994) data on 1,105 adults (mean age 67–71 years, depending on their phosphate intake tertile) with moderate CKD found that serum phosphate levels were very similar, regardless of phosphate intake—3.6 mg/dL in the lowest tertile of phosphorus intake (532 mg/day) and 3.5 mg/dL in the highest intake tertile (1,478 mg/day)—and that high phosphorus intakes were not associated with increased mortality rates over 6–12 years, possibly because these patients did not have severe CKD . Of this amount, 85% is in bones and teeth, and the other 15% is distributed throughout the blood and soft tissues . Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2001. The main function of phosphorus is in the formation of bones and teeth. Furthermore, a Cochrane review of nine studies in 634 participants with CKD followed for 1–18 months found only limited, low-quality evidence indicating that dietary interventions might have a positive impact on CKD mineral and bone disorder . [, Leon JB, Sullivan CM, Sehgal AR. Phosphate binders for preventing and treating chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). [, Chines A, Pacifici R. Antacid and sucralfate-induced hypophosphatemic osteomalacia: a case report and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol 2009;15:5960-5. New York, New York: Springer-Verlag; 2017:11-28. 2002 Jun;444(3):317-26. doi: 10.1007/s00424-002-0839-4. Trautvetter U, Jahreis G, Kiehntopf M, Glei M. Consequences of a high phosphorus intake on mineral metabolism and bone remodeling in dependence of calcium intake in healthy subjects - a randomized placebo-controlled human intervention study. It`s mostly eliminated through the urine and less through the stool. Jama 2011;305:1119-27. The bioavailability of phosphate salts is approximately 70% [15,24]. Serum calcium, phosphorus and cardiovascular events in post-menopausal women. However, phosphorus in seeds and unleavened breads is in the form of phytic acid, the storage form of phosphorus . [, Selamet U, Tighiouart H, Sarnak MJ, Beck G, Levey AS, Block G, et al. Pi is abundant in the diet, and intestinal absorption of Pi is efficient and minimally regulated. FDA does not require food labels to list phosphorus content unless phosphorus has been added to the food. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects. Phosphorus is the second most abundant element in the human body (second to calcium). [, Cheungpasitporn W, Thongprayoon C, Mao MA, et al. Phosphorus is the second most plentiful mineral in your body. Two examples are provided below. This systemic condition is characterized by abnormal metabolism of phosphorus, calcium, PTH, and/or vitamin D; abnormal bone turnover, mineralization, volume, growth, or strength; and vascular or other soft-tissue calcification . To maintain a healthy body, an average human must consume 700e1250 mg phosphorus every day. [, Pavone V, Testa G, Gioitta Iachino S, et al. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%–98%) healthy individuals; often used to plan nutritionally adequate diets for individuals. Dietary phosphorus contributes to a range of bodily functions, including kidney function. Yogurt, plain, low fat, 6-ounce container, Salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, 3 ounces, Cheese, mozzarella, part skim, 1.5 ounces, Beef patty, ground, 90% lean meat, broiled, 3 ounces, Potatoes, Russet, flesh and skin, baked, 1 medium. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013;1301:21-6. Several observational studies support a link between high phosphate levels and CVD risk in people with and without a history of CVD [58,59]. Electrolyte disorders following oral sodium phosphate administration for bowel cleansing in elderly patients. In the form of phospholipids, phosphorus is also a component of cell membrane structure and of the body’s key energy source, ATP. Sadighbayan D, Hasanzadeh M, Ghafar-Zadeh E. Trends Analyt Chem. 2020 Dec 15;21(24):9566. doi: 10.3390/ijms21249566. Some evidence shows that replacing foods containing phosphorus additives with foods that lack these additives can reduce serum phosphate levels . Several large epidemiologic studies have also found associations between higher serum phosphate concentrations and risk of cardiovascular mortality in healthy adults. People with genetic phosphate regulation disorders
Baj J, Forma A, Sitarz E, Karakuła K, Flieger W, Sitarz M, Grochowski C, Maciejewski R, Karakula-Juchnowicz H. Int J Mol Sci. [. A healthy diet is essential for healthy teeth. Epub 2020 Jun 15. Increased phosphorus retention often leads to CKD mineral and bone disorder. The inorganic part of the bone is mainly in the form 3Ca 3 (PO 4)2Ca(OH) 2 with carbonates absorbed on it. In 7,895 adults (mean age 47 years, 52% Caucasian), participants with moderately reduced kidney function had significantly higher serum phosphate levels (4.12 ml/dL) than those with normal kidney function (3.74 mg/dL) . As a result, PTH and fibroblast growth factor 23 lose their ability to suppress phosphorus resorption by the kidneys . Although phosphorus status is not typically assessed, phosphate can be measured in both serum and plasma . J Nutr. 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